Please read the following document carefully. Also make sure you are familiar with the Brit Method to feel safe for your savings.

  • What is child labor?
  • What is a child?
  • Who are child laborers and how many are there?
  • Where do child laborers live?
  • Is there child labor in the United States?
  • What do child laborers do?
  • Why should we care?
  • How can ordinary people help reduce child labor?
  • How was child labor reduced in today’s developed countries?
  • What are some of the myths or misunderstandings about child labor?
  • What causes child labor today?
  • What are some of the solutions to child labor today?

 

WHAT IS “CHILD LABOR”?

“Child labor” is, generally speaking, work for children that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking access to education).

BUT: There is no universally accepted definition of “child labor”. Varying definitions of the term are used by international organizations, non-governmental organizations, trade unions and other interest groups. Writers and speakers don’t always specify what definition they are using, and that often leads to confusion.

Not all work is bad for children. Some social scientists point out that some kinds of work may be completely unobjectionable — except for one thing about the work that makes it exploitative. For instance, a child who delivers newspapers before school might actually benefit from learning how to work, gaining responsibility, and a bit of money. But what if the child is not paid? Then he or she is being exploited. As Unicef’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report puts it, “Children’s work needs to be seen as happening along a continuum, with destructive or exploitative work at one end and beneficial work – promoting or enhancing children’s development without interfering with their schooling, recreation and rest – at the other. And between these two poles are vast areas of work that need not negatively affect a child’s development.” Other social scientists have slightly different ways of drawing the line between acceptable and unacceptable work.

International conventions also define “child labor” as activities such as soldiering and prostitution. Not everyone agrees with this definition. Some child workers themselves think that illegal work (such as prostitution) should not be considered in the definition of “child labor.” The reason: These child workers would like to be respected for their legal work, because they feel they have no other choice but to work. .

To avoid confusion, when writing or speaking about “child labor,” it’s best to explain exactly what you mean by child labor — or, if someone else is speaking, ask for a definition. This website uses the first definition cited in this section: “Child labor” is work for children under age 18 that in some way harms or exploits them (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking children from education).

WHO IS A “CHILD”?

International conventions define children as aged 18 and under.

Individual governments may define “child” according to different ages or other criteria.

“Child” and “childhood” are also defined differently by different cultures. A “child” is not necessarily delineated by a fixed age. Social scientists point out that children’s abilities and maturities vary so much that defining a child’s maturity by calendar age can be misleading. For a discussion, see Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers, “What Works for Working Children” (Stockholm: Radda Barnen and Unicef, 1998), pp 9-26.

WHO ARE CHILD LABORERS? AND HOW MANY ARE THERE?

In 2000, the ILO estimates, “246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labor, of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is hazardous to their safety, physical or mental health, and moral development. Moreover, some 8.4 million children were engaged in so-called ‘unconditional’ worst forms of child labor, which include forced and bonded labor, the use of children in armed conflict, trafficking in children and commercial sexual exploitation.”

Unicef’s State of the World’s Children Report says only that although the exact number is not known, it is surely in the hundreds of millions.

More information about who child laborers are, where they live, and new statistics on the total number can be found on www.ilo.org; also, the US Dept. of Labor’s By The Sweat and Toil of Children, Vol. VI: An Economic Consideration of Child Labor.

For more information about individual child laborers, see stories produced by Child Labor and the Global Village: Photography for Social Change.

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WHERE DO CHILD LABORERS LIVE?

61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin America, 17% of the workforce is children. The proportion of child laborers varies a lot among countries and even regions inside those countries. See Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable, Geneva, 1998, p. 7; and other ILO publications.

“In Africa, one child in three is at work, and in Latin America, one child in five works. In both these continents, only a tiny proportion of child workers are involved in the formal sector and the vast majority of work is for their families, in homes, in the fields or on the streets.” — Unicef’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report

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IS THERE CHILD LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES?

Yes, if you are talking about “child labor” as defined by the US law. The Fair Labor Standards Act sets the minimum working age as 15, with some exceptions.

In the United States: An estimated 290,200 children were unlawfully employed in 1996. Some — it’s not clear how many — were “older teens working a few too many hours in after-school jobs.” About 59,600 were younger than age 14, and some 13,100 worked in garment sweatshops, according to an Associated Press series on child labor published in December 1997. (Available on www.igc.org, by searching for “child labor” on IGC sites and IGC member sites.)

Unicef’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report says “The growth of the service sector and the quest for a more flexible workforce in industrialized countries, such as the United Kingdom and the US, have contributed to an expansion of child labour.”

“Hundreds of thousands” of children work in US agriculture, according to a report by Human Rights Watch published in June 2000.

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WHAT DO CHILD LABORERS DO?

Work ranges from taking care of animals and planting and harvesting food, to many kinds of small manufacturing (e.g. of bricks and cement), auto repair, and making of footwear and textiles. (See a list in US Dept. of Labor, By the Sweat & Toil of Children, Vo. V: Efforts to Eliminate Child Labor, Appendix C. http://www.dol.gov

A large proportion of children whom the ILO classifies as child laborers work in agriculture.

See Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable (1998) “Every Child Counts” (2002) and other ILO publications (http://www.ilo.org).

More boys than girls work outside their homes. But more girls work in some jobs: for instance, as domestic maids. Being a maid in someone’s house can be risky. Maids typically are cut off from friends and family, and can easily be physically or sexually abused by their employers.

Note: Less than 5% of child laborers make products for export to other countries. Sources for this statistic include Unicef’s State of the World’s Children Report 1997.

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WHY SHOULD WE CARE?

Many children in hazardous and dangerous jobs are in danger of injury, even death.

Beyond compassion, consider who today’s children will become in the future. Between today and the year 2020, the vast majority of new workers, citizens and new consumers — whose skills and needs will build the world’s economy and society — will come from developing countries. Over that 20-year period, some 730 million people will join the world’s workforce — more than all the people employed in today’s most developed nations in 2000. More than 90 percent of these new workers will be from developing nations, according to research by Population Action International. How many will have had to work at an early age, destroying their health or hampering their education?

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HOW CAN ORDINARY PEOPLE HELP REDUCE CHILD LABOR?

Learn about the issue. Support organizations that are raising awareness, and providing direct help to individual children.

HOW WAS CHILD LABOR REDUCED IN TODAY’S DEVELOPED COUNTRIES?

Four main changes took place:

  1. economic development that raised family incomes and living standards
  2. widespread, affordable, required and relevant education
  3. enforcement of anti-child labor laws (along with compulsory education laws)
  4. changes in public attitudes toward children that elevated the importance of education

Sources of information about the history of include Hugh Cunningham and Pier Paolo Viazzo, eds, Child abour in Historical Perspective, 1800-1985: Case Studies from Europe, Japan and Columbia (Florence: Unicef, 1996). Other sources of information about history — and controversies about which of the four elements were most important, are listed on the site www.childlabor.org.

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WHAT ARE SOME “MYTHS” OR MISUNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT CHILD LABOR?

Unicef lists four “myths”:

  1. It is a myth that child labor is only a problem in developing countries. “But in fact, children routinely work in all industrialized countries, and hazardous forms of child labour can be found in many countries. In the US, for example, children are employed in agriculture, a high proportion of them from immigrant or ethnic-minority families. A 1990 survey of Mexican-American children working in the farms of New York state showed that almost half had worked in fields still wet with pesticides and over a third had themselves been sprayed.”
  2. It is a myth that child labor will only disappear when poverty disappears. Hazardous labor can, and should be eliminated by even the poorest countries.
  3. It is a myth that most child laborers work in sweatshops making goods for export. “Soccer balls made by children in Pakistan for use by children in industrialized countries may provide a compelling symbol, but in fact, only a very small proportion of all child workers are employed in export industries – probably less than 5 per cent. Most of the world’s child labourers actually are to be found in the informal sector – selling on the street, at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses – far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny.”
  4. It is a myth that “the only way to make headway against child labour is for consumers and governments to apply pressure through sanctions and boycotts. While international commitment and pressure are important, boycotts and other sweeping measures can only affect export sectors, which are relatively small exploiters of child labour. Such measures are also blunt instruments with long-term consequences that can actually harm rather than help the children involved.”

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WHAT CAUSES CHILD LABOR TODAY?

Poverty is widely considered the top reason why children work at inappropriate jobs for their ages. But there are other reasons as well — not necessarily in this order:

  1. family expectations and traditions
  2. abuse of the child
  3. lack of good schools and day care
  4. lack of other services, such as health care
  5. public opinion that downplays the risk of early work for children
  6. uncaring attitudes of employers
  7. limited choices for women

“The parents of child labourers are often unemployed or underemployed, desperate for secure employment and income. Yet it is their children – more powerless and paid less – who are offered the jobs. In other words, says UNICEF, children are employed because they are easier to exploit,” according to the “Roots of Child Labor” in Unicef’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report.

The report also says that international economic trends also have increased child labor in poor countries. “During the 1980s, in many developing countries, government indebtedness, unwise internal economic policies and recession resulted in economic crisis. Structural adjustment programmes in many countries accentuated cuts in social spending that have hit the poor disproportionately. ” Although structural adjustment programs are being revised to spare education from deep cuts, the report says, some countries make such cuts anyway because of their own, local priorities. In many countries public education has deteriorated so much, the report declared, that education itself has become part of the problem — because children work to avoid going to school. This conclusion is supported by the work of many social scientists, according to Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, and William Myers, who conducted a literature search for their 1998 book, What Works for Working Children (Stockholm: Radda Barnen, Unicef, 1998).

Children do some types of low-status work, the report adds, because children come from minority groups or populations that have long suffered discrimination. ” In northern Europe, for example, child labourers are likely to be African or Turkish; in Argentina, many are Bolivian or Paraguayan; in Thailand, many are from Myanmar. An increasingly consumer-oriented culture, spurring the desire and expectation for consumer goods, can also lead children into work and away from school.”

Other sources: Child Labor: Targeting the Intolerable, published by ILO, Geneva, 1998. ILO information available using: www.ilo.org.

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WHAT ARE SOME SOLUTIONS TO CHILD LABOR?

Not necessarily in this order:

  1. Increased family incomes
  2. Education — that helps children learn skills that will help them earn a living
  3. Social services — that help children and families survive crises, such as disease, or loss of home and shelter
  4. Family control of fertility — so that families are not burdened by children

The ILO’s International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) has explored many programs to help child laborers. See IPEC documents on the www.ilo.org site.

The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child calls for children to participate in important decisions that will affect their lives.

Some educators and social scientists believe that one of the most important ways to help child workers is to ask their opinions, and involve them in constructing “solutions” to their own problems. Strong advocates of this approach are Boyden, Myers and Ling; Concerned for Working Children in Karnataka, India; many children’s “unions” and “movements,” and the Save the Children family of non-governmental organizations.

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The Child Labor Photo Project is hiring photographers! Join our team and work on our great upcoming projects, sponsored by Fintech LTD. Send us your CVs and work at info@childlaborproject.org

Ernesto Bazan / Havana, Cuba
Ernesto Bazan is a freelance photographer whose work has appeared in North American, European and Latin American publications. He is represented by Agenzia CONTRASTO in Europe and by Gamma Liaison International in the United States. Bazan graduated with a BFA in photography from the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1982. His work was awarded the 1999 Guggenheim Fellowship and the 1998 W. Eugene Smith Award. Other awards include the Dorothea Lange-Paul Taylor prize, the Mother Jones International Foundation Grant for Photojournalism, and first prize in the Daily Life story category from World Press Photo. Bazan has worked on several collaborative book projects and has exhibited his work extensively in both group and solo shows. His work is also in private collections and museums, including the Bibliotheque National in Paris , Musee Rattau in Arles, France, The Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, and others.

Gigi Cohen / New York, NY
Gigi Cohen is a freelance photographer whose work has appeared in the New York Times, New York Newsday and other publications. Cohen’s interest in photography started at the State University of New York at Albany, where she began her studies in 1986. In 1992, she returned home to New York. She was accepted into Impact Visuals Photo Agency, and has covered political campaigns, demonstrations, parades and rallies on issues such as abortion, homelessness, gays in the military, and police brutality. A year later, she joined New York Newsday, covered the first free election in South Africa and documented the lives of people living in Hong Kong before the transition to Chinese rule. In 1995, she began affiliation with Network Photographers Photo Agency in London, photographing for various European publications, including the Sunday Times Magazine. She photographed stories about social issues for the Soros Foundation and most recently directed a photo workshop in Haiti through Kids with Cameras.

Cohen is currently working on various long-term projects on topics including: a 91-year-old collector named Arthur in Brooklyn, NYC; a minister who deals with prisoners on Death Row in Tennessee; and child domestic workers in Haiti.

Marie Dorigny / Paris, France
Marie Dorigny has been photographing child workers since 1992, when she worked with the International Labour Office to produce a photo essay on Child Labor around the world. Dorigny won a 1993 UNICEF book award for the publication, Children in Shadow, (co-author Sorj Chalandon). Dorigny graduated from the Sorbonne University in Paris and went on to become a writer for French newspapers on issues relating to economics, science and medicine. In 1989, Dorigny switched to photography and since then has covered stories such as the Romanian revolution, the effects of Agent Orange in South Vietnam, prostitution and AIDS in Thailand, child soldiers in the drug war in Burma, children in the war in Bosnia, and modern slavery in France, among others. Dorigny’s work is represented by Saba Press in the United States.

Joel Sartore / Lincoln, NE
Joel Sartore is a contract photographer for National Geographic Magazine, for which he has worked since 1992. Sartore’s work has taken him to the Arctic, British West Indies, Canada, Europe, Israel, Mexico, South America, and throughout the United States. Prior to joining National Geographic, Sartore graduated from the College of Journalism at the University of Nebraska in 1985 and accepted a position as staff photographer for the Wichita Eagle, where five years later he became director of photography. Sartore has awards from the National Press Photographer Association (NPPA) and the Pictures of the Year contest. He was a Pulitzer finalist in 1986. Sartore was a featured photographer for the VISA Pour LB9 Image photo show in Perpignan, France, a guest speaker on the NPPA Flying Short Course and was recently featured on WTBS National Geographic Explorer on a trip to Alaska. In 1995, Sartore’s photographs of America’s endangered species were published into a book by National Geographic Society entitled The Company We Keep.

Al Schaben / Huntington Beach CA
Al Schaben is a staff photographer for the Los Angeles Times. He has worked for the Times’ Orange County Edition since 1993 after graduating from the College of Journalism at The University of Nebraska. He interned at the Detroit Free Press, the Wichita Eagle, the Bridgeport Post and the Dallas Morning News. He was a three-time finalist in the William Randolph Hearst national competition and the first student ever to win “Photographer of the Year” in the professional division of the National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) competition. As a professional, Schaben’s photographs have printed by magazines such as U.S. News & World Report, TV Guide, Newsweek, Fortune, Time, and Life.

Judy Walgren / Taos, NM
Judy Walgren, a freelance photographer, was part of a 1994 Pulitzer Prize-winning team of Dallas Morning News journalists that produced a series on violent human rights abuses against women all over the world. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism from the University of Texas and joined the photo staff at the Dallas Morning News in 1987. Walgren has covered war and famine in the Horn of Africa, Her book, The Lost Boys of Natinga : A School for Southern Sudan’s Young Refugees, dealing with children and war in southern Sudan was published in by Houghton Mifflin in 1998. She received The Barbara Jordan Award for reporting on people with disabilities, the Associated Press Managing Editors Photojournalism Award, the Texas Council Against Violence Award for her photo essays on abused women, and an Award of Excellence in the 1997 Pictures of the Year competition for Issues Reporting.

Jon Warren / Seattle, WA
Jon Warren specializes in international editorial and documentary photography. Warren has traveled to more than 50 countries to cover stories about children, village life, farmers, health workers, and victims of famines and wars. Warren worked as a photojournalist for World Concern , an international relief and development agency, and for the Seattle Times before becoming a freelancer in 1987. He has published three books of photography and has contributed to several others. Warren’s book projects have included people and religion around the world, handloom weaving in Bangladesh, the homeless in Los Angeles, and Mennonites in Bolivia. Warren’s photos are featured in Bhutan: Mountain Fortress of the Gods (Christian Schicklgruber, editor), published by the Vienna Museum fur Volkerkunde and Serindia Publishers. Warren’s work has been displayed in several solo and group exhibits.

Clarence Williams / Los Angeles, CA
Clarence Williams, a staff photographer for the Los Angeles Times, was awarded the 1997 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography on a photo series about children of crack addicted parents. The series also won a First Place in Photojournalism for the 1997 Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award, and the Journalist of the Year award from the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ). Current projects include stories about crack cocaine use, the life of a prostitute from her perspective, and a look at the working elderly in Los Angeles. Williams graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication from Temple University in Philadelphia in 1992 and worked as an intern for the Philadelphia Tribune and the York (Penn.) Daily Record. Prior to joining the L.A. Times in 1995, Williams was a staff photographer for the Times Community Newspapers in Reston, Virginia.

Francesco Zizola / Rome, Italy
Francesco Zizola has been working as a freelance photographer since 1981, after finishing anthropological studies at the University of Rome. In 1986, he switched from fashion and advertising photography to reportage. At that time, he began working for international newspapers and magazines such as L’Europeo, L’Expresso, Epoca, Newsweek, Stern, and The European. From 1989 to 1991, Zizola photographed news stories in Albania, Northern Korea, Romania, Germany, Kenya, Israel, Russia and Yugoslavia. In 1992, he began working on a project called Heirs of 2000 — supported by Agenzia CONTRASTO, with the Italian Committee of UNICEF — about the conditions of children around the world. His book, Ruas, about the lives of street children in Brazil, won a prize from the University of Rome for the best book of photography published in 1994. Zizola also won Photo of the Year 1997 from the World Press Photo. Zizola is represented by Agenzia CONTRASTO in Italy and Matrix in the U.S.

Julia Dean / Los Angeles
See Julia’s biography here.

Student Photographer

Brian Finke / New York, NY
Brian Finke, a 1998 graduate of the School of Visual Arts in New York, was the student photographer selected to join the team for the project Child Labor and the Global Village: Photography for Social Change. While finishing school, he worked as a photographer for the School of Visual Arts Public Relations Department and at Saba Press Photos. Finke has also worked as an assistant printer to a variety of photographers. His photographic work has appeared in several group exhibitions, and has been seen in publications such as Photo District News, The Rangefinder, F-Stop Magazine, Visual Opinion Magazine, The Villager, Piercing Fans International Quarterly, The New York Times Magazine and The Los Angeles Times Magazine.

About us:

  • Director, Reporters, Web Designer
  • The Tides Center
  • The Photographers
  • Contributors
  • Links
  • Press Coverage of the Project

Being born in a family with small financial resources is nothing but a bad luck, but this can sometimes push kids into labor. It’s a pity to have such cases in the 21st century but there is a way out. Investing in an option robot may seem risky but could be safer than many other options out there.

Gigi Cohen, Photographer

© Gigi Cohen/The Photo Project

Josiméne looks at a black and white Polaroid of herself. There are no mirrors in the two-room house where she works as live-in maid, or restavec, for a family of four. Josiméne’s family lives in a remote part of Haiti’s interior, hours by car and foot from Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital.

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Josiméne, 10, works as a restavec, or live-in maid, in a two-room house outside of Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital. Josiméne’s parents are small farmers in Haiti’s remote and mountainous heartland. Two years before these photographs were taken, they asked a local woman to find a family that would take Josiméne as a servant.

Estimated numbers of child domestic workers around the world range into the hundreds of millions. Haiti has an estimated 300,000 restavecs — a term that combines the Creole for “to stay” and “with.”

The line between harmless chores and child labor, according to the International Labor Organization, is crossed when children are sold or trafficked; bonded to repay family debt; work without pay; are exposed to safety or health hazards; work excessive hours; suffer physical violence or sexual harassment; or are “very young.”

The Maurice Sixto Foyer, a non-profit organization, offers free classes for restavecs. On many afternoons, Josiméne’s errands keep her too busy to attend.

Location: A suburb of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Haiti’s Dark Secret: The Restavecs
Servitude Crosses the Line Between Chores and Child Slavery

http://www.npr.org/display_pages/features/feature_1779562.html

Poverty is a huge issue and sometimes people in a bad financial shape are vulnerable to scams. The same is the case with the so-called Dubai Lifestyle App which has made the savings of many people go astray.

Jon Warren, Photographer

© Jon Warren/The Photo Project

Boy jumping in front of fire. To reduce the stench in the Stung Meanchey garbage dump near Phnom Penh, scavengers set the rubbish on fire.
The Dump Life

Maryknoll Magazine
May/June 2003
Putting a lens to labor by Vincent J. Romano
First Place certificate
Catholic Press Association
June 2, 2004

To find the main dump for the city of Phnom Penh, Cambodia’s capital, drive down the dirt road near the radio station in the commune of Stung Meanchey. Three siblings — the elder boys Kayrith, 14, and Ratha, 12, and their younger sister, Minea, 10 — and their cousin, Thavara, 11, work there as scavengers. The siblings live near the dump with their father Bo, 37, mother Sam On, 35, younger sisters Srey Yaan, 5, and Srey Yan, 4, and 10-month-old brother Sam Naang. Their home is a typical two-story, bamboo-framed shack with a corrugated tin roof, and walls of patched-together corrugated tin and scavenged materials. The children sleep on the second story, which has a floor of slatted bamboo. The parents sleep on the damp and muddy first floor, so that they can guard the flock of ducks they scoot into a pen beside the cooking platform. One day, Thavara sank in the garbage up to her neck. On another day, photographer Jon Warren, who is nearly six feet tall, stepped on a seemingly dry spot and sunk in up to his thigh.

Location: Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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The image of a young child working hard to earn money can be disturbing. Children are supposed to enjoy their childhood and live carefree lives. They are not supposed to miss out on these precious moments while struggling to earn money for a living while others make big cash with option robot.

Child labor is illegal in many countries around the world, including India. In spite of having rules to protect them, implementation of this rule has rarely worked in the favor of children. They continue to be employed in various industries and unfortunately the issue of child labor is a global one.

Here we look at some business where children continue to be used for labor:

Diamond industry:

India has been a leading global name when it comes to the diamond polishing industry. It is also a major supplier of precious stones such as rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Small units do the processing work of these diamonds and each of them employs few workers. There is no big operator who handles this operation.

Parents prefer sending their children to work in these units as they find educating their children expensive. They also feel that unlike a good education, working in a polishing unit will help them earn much more as they grow up.

Manufacture of fireworks:

One of the most dangerous industries where child labor has been prevalent for a long time is the industry of manufacturing fireworks. Most of these factories are not registered and they do not follow safe operating practices.

Children are made to work for long hours in unsafe conditions and given low wages. They have long and tiring schedules. Children are also made to work in factories that manufacture matchsticks and incense sticks. Since most of these factories are in the unorganized sector, it is difficult to track and take action against them.

Manufacture of silk:

Working in the silk industry can be dangerous for adults and more so for children. There have been reports that children aged around five years have been hired in this industry. They are made to work for six to seven days a week, and up to twelve hours every day.

Children are paid minimum wages and they are made to dip their hands in extremely hot water to get the silk. This process is used to check for palpation of the cocoons. What is most disturbing is that there have been reports where children were found to be bonded labor.

Weaving of carpets:

Carpets and their exports can be a good source of revenue for their manufacturers. However this industry is well known for employing child labor. A significant number of carpets made in India were found to be manufactured using child labor.

Domestic labor:

In spite of strict government policies that have banned employing children as domestic workers or in restaurants, it is a problem, which needs to be addressed consistently. Employing children to work in roadside eateries, spas, hotels and resorts is banned as well.

Child labor does not allow children to attend school and it is detrimental to their physical and mental development. Poverty and lack of good schools for children are the main causes of child labor. Whether you are the owner of a small business or a global brand, you must ensure that children all over the world are given an opportunity to develop to their full potential. This will only happen by pledging to fight against child labor.

Jon Warren, Photographer

© Jon Warren/The Photo Project

Children ride on a front loader. The children of the Phou family scavenge in the dump almost every day to earn money for school fees and to supplement the family’s meager budget. Their father, who worked as a garbage truck worker, lost his job when malaria made him miss 3 days of work. The boys are able to earn about $0.35 each for several hours of work.

Africa is arguably the poorest continent on Earth, but the technological revolution might be able to change that. Today everything that you need to have not just stable financial state is a computer, internet and the Millionaire blueprint. Trading with this software has proven to be easy, safe and efficient, as thousands of users around the globe mention.

Clarence Williams, Photographer

Officers watch as the recruits in training march by.

Since 1993, Burundi has been gripped by a civil war between the Tutsi-led government and rebel groups dominated — and claiming to represent — the Hutu majority population. The government has herded the mostly Hutu population into camps near the capital city of Bujumbura. Children from the camps join the army and guerilla groups in order to escape the poverty, food shortages and boredom of the camps. Desperation and hopelessness drives some despite — such as Ntirandekura, 16, pictured here — to think that they have little choice but to join. Others join in a relatively open manner, such as the boys pictured at Muramvya Training Camp, a training camp for the army.

Location: Bujumbura and other locations in Burundi.

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We are all bricks in the wall of our society and ensuring our personal financial security could result strengthening those around you, starting with your closest relatives. Read all the information about the Quantum Code as many have already achieved great results with it.

Ernesto Bazan, Photographer

© Ernesto Bazan/The Photo Project

Miriam, 13, smoothes off the top of a mud-filled brick mold. Her sister, too young to make bricks, sits on the ground behind Miriam and holds a doll, next to their younger brother.

Around the world, children and their families make bricks out of clay packed into simple molds. The clay is dried, and then baked in a kiln. In three Latin American countries — Peru, Argentina and Ecuador — brick factories are concentrated on the outskirts of large cities, according to a report by the International Labor Organization. Workers are often unskilled immigrants from rural areas. Fresh water and electricity are scarce. Pay is low, while production quotas are high, and so whole families work together. Some efforts, funded by the ILO, are being made in the three countries to modernize brick production, eliminating middle-men between workers and the kilns, and supply social services, especially education. The ILO’s goal is to withdraw children from brick-making work.

Location: Huacipa, Peru


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  • To educate people about this complex issue
  • To move people emotionally
  • To motivate people to act

Everyone those days should look for ways to improve their financial status in order to minimize the risk of child labor for their kids. The Millionaire blueprint could do a great job as it is able to make big profits in no time.

Mission Statement:

Child Labor and the Global Village: Photography for Social Change is a team of 11 photographers who will be photographing child workers around the globe.

By photographing individual children in their worlds – their families, communities, countries – we hope to see behind the child labor label. Child labor is the result of a complex set of factors: poverty; lack of schools; poor health care; war; and many others. Solutions must meet the needs of individual children. We need to know who they are to know what they need.

Photos produced by the project are part of an exhibit that has traveled to the U.S. Congress, universities, schools, and other forums in the United States. Internationally, the photographs have been shown in Bangladesh. Other exhibits are planned. One story is included in a curriculum published by the Stanford University Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education. A book is planned.

This Tides Center project originated in the heart and mind of Los Angeles photographer Julia Dean. During many years of traveling to developing countries, Dean was saddened by the many children working in hazardous and dangerous conditions. One child in India touched her more deeply than others. He was a young boy who climbed on a train, swept under the feet of passengers and held out his hand to beg for change. For Dean, the boy was a sign: It was time to act.

Drawing inspiration from the Farm Security Administration photo-journalists of the 1930s and 1940s, Dean assembled three nationally known photo editors to help her select an international team of 11 talented photo-journalists, a director of photography and two writers.

If you would like to contribute to this project, click here.

To contact us, click here.

About us:

  • Director, Reporters, Web Designer
  • The Tides Center
  • The Photographers
  • Contributors
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Escaping any threat takes a lot of knowledge and so is the child labor. For example parents of threatened kids will benefit their family budgets if they know as much possible about the Brit method which, if implemented right, gives great results on everyone’s bank account.

  • International Agencies
  • International Standards
  • United States
  • Activists and Activist Groups
  • Activists and Activist Groups (Kids)
  • Trade Unions
  • Bibliographies
  • Journalism
  • Photography

International Agencies

UNICEF’s (home page) www.unicef.org

UNICEF’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report, on child labor http://www.unicef.org/sowc97/

Other UNICEF publications on child labor available from Innocenti Research Center in Bellagio, Italy (publications on child labor) http://www.unicef-irc.org/

International Labor Organization, www.ilo.org

ILO Washington office http://www.us.ilo.org/

The World Bank http://www.worldbank.org

UNESCO publishes some reports and studies related to child labor (do a Search for “child labor” on the UNESCO site) http://www.unesco.org

 

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International standards, set by conventions:

ILO conventions 138, 182, and others available from www.ilo.org

The 1989 International Convention on the Rights of the Child http://www.unicef.org/crc/

International conventions and standards related to child soldiers, Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers site (http://www.child-soldiers.org/)

 

United States

(National And State Governments)

International Labor Affairs Bureau, of US Labor Department
http://www.dol.gov/ilab/
U.S. politicians who have shaped policy and U.S. budgets on child labor include Sen. Tom Harkin. Find information about bills concerning child labor by searching on “child labor” on the Library of Congress’ Thomas site (http://thomas.loc.gov/)

The federal law governing child labor is the Fair Labor Standards Act, which was passed in 1938. States have child labor laws as well.

State child labor officials http://vocserve.berkeley.edu/CenterFocus/CF8guide.html

 

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Activists And Activist Groups

Anti-Slavery International www.antislavery.org/

Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs http://www.afop.org

Child Relief and You (CRY) http://www.cry.org/

Child Rights Information Network http://www.crin.org/

Child Workers in Asia http://www.cwa.tnet.co.th/

Childwatch International Research Network http://www.childwatch.uio.no

The M.V. Foundation

MVF India – Child Rights Organization

National Consumers League
www.nclnet.org/

Child Labor Coalition
www.stopchildlabor.org
Global March Against Child Labor http://www.globalmarch.org

Kailash Satyarthi
http://www.pbs.org/opb/thenewheroes/meet/satyarthi.html

Inderjit Khurana
http://www.pbs.org/opb/thenewheroes/meet/khurana.html

Ruchika Social Service Organization ruchika.org

The Global Campaign for Education http://www.campaignforeducation.org/

Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org

International Labor Rights Fund http://www.laborrights.org/

Save the Children Federation http://www.savethechildren.org/

Radda Barnen the Swedish Save the Children Federation http://www.rb.se

World Vision http://www.worldvision.org/worldvision/master.nsf/

National Coalition for Haitian Rights http://www.nchr.org/hrp/restavek/haiti_insight3.htm

Foyer Maurice Sixto (French) http://www.haiticulture.ch/Restavek.html

 

Activists And Activist Groups (Kids)

Free the Children http://www.freethechildren.org

A Bullet Can’t Kill A Dream, project started by Broad Meadows Middle School students in Quincy, Mass. http://www.mirrorimage.com/iqbal

 

http://www.labornet.org Global online communication for a democratic, independent labor movement

 

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Bibliographies

Labors of Love Project (bibliography; articles and curriculum materials; links) www.childlabor.org

Amnesty International www.amnesty.org/
Amnesty International USA www.Amnestyusa.org

Bibliography on street children
http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/humanrights/bibliographies/kidbib.street.html

Childwatch International Research Network resources:
http://childhouse.uio.no/

Child Workers in Asia site has bibliographic references to articles and books about child labor in Asia (http://www.cwa.tnet.co.th/)

Children as Social Actors bibliography compiled by Economic and Social Research Council ( http://www.hull.ac.uk/children5to16programme/biblio.htm)

 

Trade Unions

AFL-CIO page on children and the global economy
http://www.aflcio.org/issues/jobseconomy/globaleconomy/children/

American Federation of Teachers child labor resource site
http://www.aft.org/topics/international/child-labor/resources.htm

International Federation of Free Trade Unions’ child labor page http://www.icftu.org/focus.asp?Issue=childlabour&Language=EN

 

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Journalism

BBC Children’s Rights
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/childrensrights/help.shtml

The New Heroes:
see stories about Inderjit Khurana and Kailash Satyarthi
http://www.pbs.org/opb/thenewheroes/

New Internationalist, issue about child labor, No. 292, July 1997
http://www.newint.org/issue292/content.html

 

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Photography

Stolen Dreams, book by photographer Dr. David Parker
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/gallery

America from the Great Depression to World War II
Photography of the Farm Security Administration-Office of War Information Collection (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fsahtml/fahome.html

Historical Photographs of child labor in the United States, early 1900s, by Lewis Hine
http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/207-b.html

Before Their Time: The World of Child Labor, by David L. Parker
http://www.childlaborphotographs.com

Child Labor in Towns and Cities, photo essays in Changemakers.net, April, 2000
http://www.changemakers.net/studio/00april/jarman2.cfm

 

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About us:

  • Director, Reporters, Web Designer
  • The Tides Center
  • The Photographers
  • Contributors
  • Links
  • Press Coverage of the Project

Child Labor & The Global Village

Details to be announced soon.
Thanks to the financial help by Fintech LTD
Fall 2017

Child Labor & The Global Village

Monterey High School
One-day presentation to students
January 2013

Child Labor & The Global Village

Presentation to class, writing coaching for student writing story about child soldiers

Pescadero High School

Fall 2011

A Silent Auction And Exhibit Opening

100 photographs by 100 of the top photographers around the world.

The Stephen Cohen Gallery, 7358 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90036

February 20, 2010

Child Labor & The Global Village

Presentation and photo exhibit

Peace Resource Center

Seaside, CA

July-December, 2010

Child Labor & The Global Village

Monterey High School

One-day presentation to students

March 2010

Child Labor & The Global Village Exhibit

William Tell Coleman Library

Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, CA

October 7-mid-November, 2009

Keeping Young Workers Safe On The Job

(a joint exhibit of photographs by Child Labor and the Global Village; photographs by Lewis Hine from the George Eastman House collection; and posters by California teens about safe work)

April 10-May 12, 2006

Monday-Friday, 8 AM-5 PM

Dalziel Building, Oakland, CA

opening reception May 2, 6 PM-8PM

Child Miners In Latin America

One-day exhibit of photos by Ernesto Bazan of Beto, 12, processing gold ore in Peru in conjunction with screening of: The Devil’s Miner

www.thedevilsminer.com

April 11, 2006

San Francisco Library

 

Moving Walls 10 – A Group Photography Exhibition

March 16, 2005 – October 28, 2005
Open Society Institute
400 West 59th Street
New York, NY 10019 USA
Tel. 1-212-548-0600
http://www.soros.org/

 

Keeping Young Workers Safe On The Job

(a joint exhibit of photographs by Child Labor and the Global Village; photographs by Lewis Hine from the George Eastman House collection; and posters by California teens about safe work)
San Jose State University Library/
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
April 5-May 27
opening party May 2
(check back for information about programs in May)

 

The Thoreau Center For Sustainability
The Presidio
1016 Lincoln Blvd.
San Francisco, CA 94129
May 17-July 2, 2004

Cross-Cultural Research With Children: Challenges, Concerns And Ethics

Hyatt St. Claire Hotel

San Jose, CA

(Contact Lewis Aptekar, Professor of Counselor Education,

San Jose State University, laptekar@sjsu.edu)

February 20, 2004

Gavilan Briggs Gallery

Gavilan College

Gilroy & Hollister, CA

December 2003

Columbia University

New York, NY

September 2003

The New School

New York, NY

September 2003

UNICEF House

New York, NY

September 2003

“Using The Human Rights Framework To Combat Abusive And Exploitative Child Labor”

University of Iowa

Iowa City, IA

July 8-10 2003

Child Labor Education And Action Project

Brattleboro Union High School, Brattleboro, VT

Sharon Academy, Sharon, VT

March 2003

“Child Labor And Globalization”

Santa Clara University

January-February 2003

Chobi Mela II

Dhaka, Bangladesh

November – December 2002

Briefing For Congressional Human Rights Caucus And Congressional Children’s Caucus

Washington, D.C.

June 2002

“Child Labor In A Globalizing Economy:Lessons From The Asia/Pacific Region”

Stanford University

Stanford, CA

February 200

The Julia Dean Photo Workshops

Marina del Rey, California

November 2000

Russell Senate Office Building

Washington, D.C.

June 1999

Exhibits and presentations have also been made at the Los Angeles County Library, Western Washington University, and K-12 Schools in Los Angeles, Palo Alto (CA) and New York City, and Brunei Darussalam. Speakers, slide show and exhibit photos available upon request.

 

About us:

  • Director, Reporters, Web Designer
  • The Tides Center
  • The Photographers
  • Contributors
  • Links
  • Press Coverage of the Project